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Chapter 24: Imperialism

Page history last edited by emonjar 13 years, 1 month ago

 

Section 1

Working together using this wiki

Think of this wiki as a shared online whiteboard. The entire class can share information using this wiki, making your research accessible to everyone. You will not  have to complete the IDs all by yourself! Play around with this wiki: Notice how you can add comments to a page, see what people have changed, and edit all the text.

 

How to add your information to this wiki...

  1. Click on the Edit tab at the top.
  2. Scroll down to your term and copy and paste your information. (Be sure to add your name after the term)
  3. Use the right toolbar to insert images and files (be sure to keep your images small - we are all sharing this page)

    Use this checklist to check your work: (I use this list to grade your wiki)

    • Add your name next to the term/concept you are responsible for (5 pts)
    • Underline the term/concept - make it bold or heading 2 size (5 pts)
    • Brief summary of term/concept - use bullets or highlight key points (55 pts)
    • Picture/map - must include caption (keep image small in size) (image = 15 pts; caption =10 pts)
    • Please provide a FULL citation for the source(s) used - www.citationmachine.net can help. (5 pts)
    • Post your info in the right location - instead insert your image with caption right under your content. (5 pts)
    You are responsible for ONE term this week.
  1. When you are done, hit Save at the bottom and view your work (make changes (Edit) as necessary).
  2. TIP: only one person can edit this wiki at a time, so I suggest you create your entry in a word program first. Then you can simply copy and paste it right in when the wiki is available for edit.

 

 Identifications - Imperialism - you are responsible for ONE this week:

Rudyard Kipling and White Man's Burden-Abby Pardue

 

  • Rudyard Kipling was an English poet and author.

  • Though he is most famous for his piece, The Jungle Book, one of his poems, The White Man's Burden is studied frequently in schools as an insight into the perspective of imperialism.

  • The White Man's Burden takes the viewpoint of a European imperialist. The subject views imperialism as a duty to weaker nations, for they believe that they work to civilze the natives, but yet they aren't appreciated for it.
  • The idea of imperialism in this poem is not one of brutality as many see it today. Instead it is viewed as a duty and 'burden' to the white man.

 

This cartoon suggests that the white man's burden is not a burden at all but an domineering attitude or imperialism.

 

 

"Rudyard Kipling." Online-Literature. The Literature Network. 13 Feb 2009 <http://www.online-literature.com/kipling/>.

 

La mission civilisatrice and Manifest Destiny-Rebecca Overcash

 

·         La mission civilisatrice is the French term for “civilizing mission.”

·         It signified France's attempt to convert its colonial subjects into French people.

·         It was initially championed by French Republican political leader Jules Ferry.

·         The French believed that if properly taught French values and the French language, Algerians and Vietnamese alike would slowly evolve and become French.

·         Some French held that it was their duty as a more enlightened race to elevate the ignorant masses of the non-Western world.

·         Manifest Destiny was a concept which heavily influenced American policy in the 1800s.

·         First used by American newspaper editor John O’ Sullivan when he stated that it was America's “manifest destiny to overspread the continent.”

·         It the driving force behind the rapid expansion of America into the West from the East.

·         Heavily promoted by newspapers and posters.

·         It itself wasn’t a government policy, but it led to the Homestead Act, which promoted Westward colonization.

·         The Westward expansion of the United States did not begin with Manifest Destiny, but with the Louisiana Purchase.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This cartoon shows the movement of people westward in the United States.

 

 

"Manifest Destiny." MrDonn. 12 Feb 2009 <http://americanhistory.mrdonn.org/manifestdestiny.html>.

 

 

"Mission Civilisatrice." answers. 12 Feb 2009 <http://www.answers.com/topic/mission-civilisatrice>.

 

 

Smith, S.E. "What is Manifest Destiny?." wisegeek. 12 Feb 2009 http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-manifest-destiny.htm.

 

Suez Canal- Elayne Monjar

  • Allows for tranportation between Europe and Asia without having to travel around Africa
  • Is 119 miles long
  • Built across Isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869
  • Financed by European investors
  • With increasing indebtedness of Khedives, it was permitted for intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investment
  • Gamal Abdul Nasser in 1956 removed the British from control of the Suez Canal zone
  • Currently owned and control by the Suez Canal Authority

 

The highlighted portion of the map is the Suez Canal.

Adas, Michael, Stuart B. Schwartz, and Marc J. Gilbert Peter N. Stearns. World Civilizations: The Global Experience 4th edition. Boston: Pearson /Longman, 2004.

“Suez Canal Map.”  22 May 2009.  http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/oren/Suez%20canal%20map.gif

Anlgo-Egyptian Administration

Partition of Persia – K. Martinez

 

·                     Refers to a part of the accord signed at the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 (also called the Anglo-Russian Entente)

·                     In the accord, Persia was split into three sections: a Russian section in the north, a British section in the south, and a neutral section in the middle to serve as a buffer between the other two sections

·                     The Persian government did not know anything about the accord, or have any say as to the provisions.

·                     When the Lenin and the Bolsheviks took control of Russia, the new government declared the provision regarding the Partition of Persia to be “null and void”, called for the withdrawal of troops from Persia, and stated that the Persians would have the right to freely determine their own destiny.

 

Partition of Persia by Russia and Great Britain

"Anglo-Russian Entente." Wikipedia. 1994. Wikipedia. 12 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Russian_Entente>.  

 

 

British East India Company (19th cent)- Jordan Hubbard

¨       It started out as an English chartered company that traded with Southeast Asia and India.

¨       During the 18th and 19th centuries it became involved in politics and acted as Britain’s chief agent in imperialism of India because it already controlled most of it.

¨       Relied on Indian troops, sepoys, in conflicts between local princes.

¨       The company gained power in Bengal after the Battle of Plassey in 1757.

¨       In 1765, the British gained the right to collect revenue or diwani.

¨       The Regulation Act of 1773 provided for greater parliamentary control of India and that it would be ruled by a Governor General.

¨       Parliamentary acts in 1813 and 1833 ended the company’s trade monopoly.

¨       The company’s rule lasted until 1858 when the British government took over administering India because of the Government of India Act 1858.

¨       It also helped Britain increase its influence in China during the 19th century.

¨       After the Indian Mutiny in 1857- 58 the East India Company was dissolved and the British government assumed direct control of India.

¨       "East India Company." Wikipedia . 9 Feb 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honourable_East_India_Company.

gold two-pagodas, obverse

 

East India Company bronze-gilt two-pice,

Madras Presidency, 1804

Sir Robert Clive and the Battle of Plassey

- J. Hopkins

- Clive was first sent overseas as a factor for the British East India Company

- After receiving an ensign’s commission, Clive quickly advanced upward due to his bravery and service

- The forces in the Battle of Plassey amounted to 1,100 European troops, 2,100 sepoys and nine field artillery under the command of Clive, and 18,000 cavalry, 50,000 troops, and 53 field artillery under the command of Siraj Ud Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal

- After initial hesitation over whether to attack or delay, Clive decided to attack immediately

- Before the actual battle, Clive convinced Mir Jafar and other nobles in Bengal to desert during the battle, which proved crucial to the success of Clive in the battle, as Mir Jafar alone directed a large force away from the battle

- After the battle, a great success for Britain, Clive installed Mir Jafar as Nawab and claimed 500,000 pounds for the army and navy of the British East India Company, 25,000 pounds to each member of the company’s central committee, 160,000 pounds for himself, in addition to an amount intended as public reparation

- The Battle of Plassey brought only Bengal under British control, not Upper India

- Clive was later called on to govern parts of India; using his influence as governor he attempted to curb political corruption and control the massive amount of wealth moving from India to Britain as closely as possible

- Clive also reformed the British military force in India, dividing the troops into 3 brigades capable of defending themselves against any army raised in India

- Despite Clive’s attempts at reform, he was constantly under scrutiny in England because of the massive fortune he had acquired due to his endeavors in India, both as military commander and political official

- Although Clive was cleared of suspicion in 1774 he committed suicide the in the same year due to a combination of depression and opium addiction

 

 

Pictured here is the Clive family portrait, painted in 1765 well after Clive's successful Indian campigns. Pictured also is an Indian maid that served the Clive family.

 

 

 

 

 

India cotton and the East India spice trade

Duncan Holter

  • The Dutch East India Company and the French East India Company originally holding power over most of the spice trade.
  • With British colonialism taking root in India, Britain competed for control of Indian goods against the commercial ventures of the DEIC.
  • The Moluccas, islands north of Indonesia and in the south of the Philippines, served as principal trading ports and placing where inter-imperial commerce took place.
  • Britain, after completely eliminating the French East India Company, aggressively reduced the power of the Dutch East India Company.
  • Indian cotton symbolized anti-colonial sentiment in British India, as well as being a very important cash crop.

 

 

Zamindar system - Evan Hoke

 

  • Zamindar were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants.
  • The zamindar was considered a lord, and he collected all the taxes on his land and handed over those taxes to the British authorities, while keeping a portion for himself.
  • The zamindari were the leading proprietors in their villages.
  • They were also entrusted with important judicial and governmental functions.
  • Their tenants ranged from dozens to many thousands, and under imperial law, had to pay rent to Zamindars to retain rights to their land.
  • Zamindari mansions were generally very large and elaborate.
  • All the public lands were brought under the Zamindar’s control by the Zamindari system.

A depiction of a Zamindar.

 

"Zamindari system." 30 AUG 2007 19 Feb 2009 <http://www.indianofficer.com/forums/history-wiki/1568-zamindari-system.html>.

"Zamindari system." 19 FEB 2009 19 Feb 2009 <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/45/KameshwarSingh.jpg/180px-KameshwarSingh.jpg>.

 

The Raj

The Indian Mutiny (Sepoy Rebellion)

sati, thuggee, and the untouchables

British establishment of Singapore - Maggie Dillon

- in 1818 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles was made lieutenant govenor of the British Colony at Bencoolen

- He thought the British should replace the Dutch as the main power in the Maylay archipelago

     (Because the Opium traded with Britain from China had to pass through the archipelago)

- Dutch stuck Brits with high taxes and forbid them from using Dutch ports

- He convinced the Govenor-General of India that his superior in the British East India Company comissioned him to explore the area for a site to establish new ports

- He arrived in Singapore in 1819 and viewed the island as an ideal place for a port

     (possessed a natural deep harbour, fresh water supplies, and timber for repairing ships)

- Found a small colony of people who were ruled by a local who was under Dutch rule, but the people were loyal to another local who was in exile (Tengku Hussein)

- With help, Raffles smuggled Hussein into the country, offered him a yearly wage, and recognize him with his real title, Sultan of Johor-  with a promise that he would grant the British the right to establish a trading post in Singapore

-- The treaty was signed on Feb. 6, 1819 and thus mdern Singapore was established.

 

 - statue of Raffles standing where he first landed in Singapore.

 

-- "Singapore." Wikipedia 11 Feb. 2009

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore>

 

French conquest of Indochina - Lewis Dalrymple

 

  • Indochina is composed of the countries of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
  • Relationship between France and Vietnam began with the Jesuit father Alexandre de Rhodes
  • During the 18th Century, France's involvement in Vietnam was strictly that of trade
  • Pigneau de Behaine petitioned the French government for volunteers in order to aid the Nguyen Dynasty in retaking lands that had been lost
  • France heavily involved in Vietnam during the 19th Century
    • Protected the works of the Paris Foreign Missions Society
  • Nguyen Dynasty began to see Catholic missionaries as a threat
  • Napoleon III sent Charles Rigault de Genouilly to stop the expelling of Catholic Missionaries
    • Captured Da Nag, but had to leave due to supply and sickness issues
    • Sailed South and captured the poorly defended city of Sai Gon
  • April 13, 1862 - Vietnam forced to cede the territories of Bien Hoa, Gia D?nh (translation error?), and Dinh Tuong to France
    • De Genouilly criticized for his actions and replaced with Admiral Page in November of 1859
    • Told to protect the Catholic Faith and not to attempt territorial gains
    • 4 years later this was reversed, with the French gaining large amounts of land
  • 1863, Cambodian King Norodom asked for a French Protectorate to be established over Cambodia
  • 1867, Siam (modern day Thailand) renounced suzerainty over Cambodia and recognized the French Protectorate in return for control of Battambang and Siem Reap provinces.

 

Expansion of French Indochina in Blue

 

"Indochina." Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. 18 Feb 2009 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/286431/Indochina.

"French Indochina." Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 18 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Indochina>.

 

Thailand's modernization and independence

Cecil Rhodes- Colt Burgin

 

  • Born July 5, 1853 in Bishops Stortford, England.
  • Became a diamond prospector in South Africa and had a large fortune by the age of 19
  • Studied at the University of Oxford and then went back to diamond prospecting.
  • He merged multiple diamond mining companies to form one large one named De Beers Mining Company.
  • This monopolized the diamond production
  • 1881- Entered Cape Colony Parliament and help position for the rest of his life.
  • 1890- named Prime Minister of Cape Colony
  • Supported British conspiracy in South African Republic
  • Played large role in the defense of Kimberly during the Boer War
  • Died at Cape Town- March 26, 1902
  • Left most of his fortunes to Rhodes Scholarships.

 

 

Citation-

"Cecil Rhodes." MSN Encarta. Microsoft. 11 Feb 2009 http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566082/Cecil_Rhodes.html.

 

 

Picture of Cecil Rhodes

 

Shaka Zulu and the Zulus

Shaka Zulu and the Zulus- JC Bunch

The result of a liaison between the Zulu chief Senzangakhona and a woman from another tribe, Shaka's name was a contemptuous reference to an intestinal beetle. First a protégé of Dingiswayo, leader of the Mthethwa confederation, Shaka's astonishing rise was based on the radical changes he made to Zulu military techniques. Zulu society was already disciplined, with age groups organized on military lines. Shaka's ‘Regiments’ had no fixed establishments but were drawn from these age groups, reducing the risk of clan-inspired rivalry. Shaka hardened his soldiers by long, barefoot marches, and inflicted the death penalty for the least failure. He believed that battles were won by pressing to close quarters and replaced the throwing spear, traditionally the principal weapon, by the broad-bladed stabbing spear and the light shield with a larger, heavier one designed to hook away the opponent's and expose him to the killing stroke. Shaka developed, though he did not invent, the crescent-shaped deployment, which he likened to the buffalo: the horns enveloped the enemy and the chest ‘ate him up’. A reserve, the loins, could be committed as required.

 

 

 

This Is the cover of the Series that tells the story of Shaka Zulu, this story was premiered on A&E and made TV history!

The Boers and the Boer War: Josh Broach

  • The Boers were a coalition of Calvinists mainly from The Netherlands, France, and Germany who had settled in South Africa during the 17th century as a religious agricultural society.
  • The Boers spoke Afrikaans, an Indo-European language.
  • The Boers were occupied by the British Empire in the Cape Colony and decided to flee to nearby Natal, The Orange Free State, and Transvaal. The Boers left to both escape oppression and to be away from the British-native conflicts taking place in the region.
  • Leaving of the colony was known as the Great Trek starting in about 1835.
  • British goals for diamonds and gold found in the Orange State, Natal, and Transvaal were the ambitions of the British colonizing these areas which were for a while declared independent.
  • The declaration of freedom by Boers in Transvaal in 1880 led to the First Boer War fought between the Boers settled in the region and the British.
  • Many guerillas attacked army establishments throughout the region.
  • The First Boer War ended in disaster for the British as the Pretoria Convention was eventually upheld which declared a Boer-self government with a theoretical control by the British basically meaning half freedom was awarded to the Boers and Transvaal.
  • War was declared in 1899 following heightened tensions after the First Boer War leading to the Second Boer War.
  • With renewed efforts and newly found gold, the British once again had an onslaught of the Boers. This time however it was much larger scale bringing death to a significant population of the Boers including civilians.
  • The Boers struck first with a siege of Natal and the Cape Colony, managing to our power the scattered British by making the first move.
  • The British finally regrouped in 1900 bringing General Sir Buller and his three army battalions who had learned from the Crimean War. The British finally started to over power the Boers, sending the POW’s to distant lands (even Bermuda,,,how messed up is that?) so as to not have to worry about supplying them and a war at the same time.
  • The Boers gained sympathy in mainland Europe as the British even had concentration camps to detain Boer civilians including women and children.
  • Treaty of Vereeniging signed in May 1902 ended the war and ended the free republics of the Boers. The result was a tremendous loss of British and Boers numbering close to 100,000. The British took control of these independent regions and established a greater South African domination. In years following they granted a limited self-government after money was given for reconstruction.

File:South Africa late19thC map.png

Blue is the original British Control while the Orange was the Orange Free State, Natal is in Red and the main Boer holdout of Transvaal is green.

 

 

"Second Boer War." Wikipedia. 12 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Boer_War>.

Diamond and Gold Industries of South Africa- Will Boggs

 

  • In 1867 the diamond that began the diamond rush in South Africa was found. Two years later many more diamonds were found between the Vaal and Orange Rivers.
  • By the end of 1870 there was a diamond rush in South Africa and in 1871 there were two reconginzed areas to find diamonds in South Africa
  • In 1872 the pipes for the diamonds were giant quarries that were worked by 2500 miners and 10,000 hired laborers
  • Eventually there was diamond strikes being done by the workers which helped to lead to the discovery of another element in South Africa. A few years after the diamond strikes South Africa had a gold rush
  • Gold mining started as a profession in 1887 and with this new found gold many workers were attracted to South Africa. The industry since then has still increased. With more than half of the inhabitants of South African relying on the gold industry.
  • Since gold was first found, South African mines have produced more than 40 percent of the gold showing its extreme abundance in the elements and illustrating its importance on the country's economic market.

 

This is an example of a gold mine. This picture seeminly of a whole is the entrance to the mine. Without this apparent "hole" in the ground there would be a large hole financially in the pocket of South African citizens.

 

"Diamonds, Gold, and South Africa." Geology. 2000. 10 Feb 2009 http://www.geology.ucdavis.edu/~cowen/~GEL115/115CH15diamonds.html.

 

Zanzibar and the Arab influence in East Africa - Dalyn Bellingham

  • Zanzibar consists of one large island and two smaller islands and are part of the East African republic of Tanzania
  • Zanzibar is a conservative, Sunni Muslim society
  • Zanzibar held a long trading history within the Arab world. Arab traders discovered the islands and used them as a base for voyages
  • From Zanzibar they were able to trade conveniently with many East Africa coastal towns
  • In 1698, a ruling Arab elite took control of Zanzibar under the Sultanate of Oman
  • Zanzibar was an important place in the Arab slave trade, and also a major trade port for the East African slave trade

"Zanzibar." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 9 Feb 2009, 09:36 UTC. 11 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zanzibar&oldid=269501981>.

East African Slave Trade- Adam Barr

 

  • Islamic merchants traded for slaves in east Africa for many centuries from c. 650 CE until 1900 CE
  • More females than males were taken
  • It is estimated that 80,000 Africans died on the way to the market each year along the course of the East African Slave Trade
  • Zanzibar was the main port for the exportation of slaves in east Africa, with as many as 50,000 slaves passing through every year by the late 19th century
  • Some sources estimate that between 11 million and 17 million slaves were exported from east Africa from 650 CE-1900 CE

 

 A map of Africa in the 13th century showing the slave trade in different regions of Africa. Notice that most of the trade was internal during this time period; the Atlantic Slave Trade had not yet begun. The Arab east African slave trade took place in the pink areas.

 

 

"African Slave Trade." Wikipedia. 07 Feb 2009. 10 Feb 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_slave_trade.

 

Outlawing the Atlantic Slave Trade

David Livingstone- Cameron Tripp

 

  • Missionary in Africa
  • Brought health care and education to Central Africa
  • Was the first European to see Victoria Falls
  • Mapped large areas of Africa
  • Was an anti-slavery advocate

 

"David Livingstone." Wikipedia.org. 14 Feb 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Livingstone#Livingstone.27s_legacy.

 Dr. Livingstone was a Scottish missionary and anti-slavery advocate.

Leopold II and the Belgian Congo--Sara Toomey

 

·         Born 4-9-1835 in Brussels

·         Entered the army at an early age

·         He took the throne in 1865 saying all he wanted was “to leave Belgium larger, stronger, and more beautiful.”

·         Decided to have his own private colony

·         He became very rich by manipulating the Congo to the highest extent, but never actually saw the land

·         Forced labor builds the structure of the colony

·         Trade on rubber and ivory is strictly regulated

·         He died 12-17-1909 five days after marrying his lover

 

 

Leopold II

 

"King Leopold of Belgium." moreorless : heroes & killers of the 20th century. 05 June 2007. 12

     Feb 2009 http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/leopold.html.

 

 

 

Menelik II and the battle of Adowa – R Stewart

 

  • Upon becoming emperor in 1889, Menelik denounced Italian claims as protectorate of Ethiopia
  • As a result of failed negotiations, Italy began to invade Ethiopia
  • Battle of Adowa was fought March 1, 1896 between Italy and Ethiopia
  • Hoping to get a slice of the African pie that was being carved up by several European nations, Italy began a campaign against Ethiopia in the 1890’s
  • With supplies and rations running low and vastly outnumbered, the Italians launched an attack
  • The attack proved ill-fated and the decimated Italian forces were forced to retreat after only six hours of fighting
  • Upon return, Italian commander Baratieri, was condemned for his ill-advised attack
  • Perhaps the greatest significance of the battle was its racial implications—blacks winning over whites
  • The Ethiopian victory served as inspiration for other African colonies to rebel against European occupation

Jonas, Ray. "Battle of Adwa (Adowa), 1896." BlackPast.org. 2007-2008. University of Washington. 10 Feb 2009 http://www.blackpast.org/?q=perspectives/battle-adwa-adowa-1896.

 

 Emperor Menelik.  Notice he does not have the look we commonly associate with Ethiopians.  Also, the thing on his head is pretty awesome--makes him look like a pirate.

 

The Herero Wars – Andrew Steiner

 

-         An imperial struggle between Germany and the Herero people of German South-West Africa

-         Lasted from 1904-1907

-         Samuel Maharero led a rebellion against German rule starting in January 1904

-         General Lother von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg in August

-         He then drove the Herero into the Omaheke desert

-         The subsequent starvation combined with the German poisoning of wells used by the Herero constituted the first genocide of the 20th century

-         Between 24,000-65,000 Herero perished

 

 

A group of Herero survivors after starving in the Omaheke desert.

 

 

"Herero and Namaqua Genocide." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.. 12 Feb 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herero_Wars>.

 

 

Otto Von Bismarck and the Berlin Conference - Lise Ross

-1884-1885

-regulated European colonization and trade in Africa

-during the New Imperialism

-called for by Portugal

-organized by Otto von Bismarck

    -first Chancellor of Germany

-outcome; General Act of the Berlin Conference

-international prohibition of the slave trade

-free trade within the Congo basin

Aronson, Goran. "The Berlin Conference." WebChron. March 1999. WebChron. 12 Feb 2009      <http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/Africa/BerlinConf.html>.

Many countries met at the Berlin Conference to discuss the problems in Africa.

 

James Cook and Hawaii - John Caudle

 

·        1728-1779

·        British explorer, navigator, and Cartographer

·        In the Royal Navy, eventually rising to Captain

·        He took three main voyages to the Pacific

·        Provided Britain with much unknown information about this area

·        Explored the Pacific coast of the United States and Alaskan waterways

·        He also visited Australia and New Zealand

·        His first contact with the Hawaiian Islands came in January 1778

·        He called Hawaii “The Sandwich Isles”

·        On his Third Voyage in 1779 he returned to Hawaii

·        His ship the “Resolution” was injured in a storm

·        Hawaiians stole some of his boats when he tried to get them repaired and in the confrontation he was killed

This is an image of a memorial dedicated to Captain James Cook in Hawaii.  It is to commemorate his first encounters here in 1778.

 

 

Capper, Paul. "The Second Voyage (1771-1776)." Captain Cook Society. 1996. 11 Feb 2009 <http://www.captaincooksociety.com/ccsu64.htm>.

 

 

"Captain James Cook Discovers Ancient Hawaii." Mystic Hawaiian. 2006. Mystichawaiian.com. 11 Feb 2009 <http://www.mythichawaii.com/cook-hawaii-discovery.htm>.

 

 

 

Topographic Map of Zanzibar's large island off the coast of East Africa in the Indian Ocean

 

 

 

 

 

"Robert Clive." Wikipedia. 2009. Jimmy Wales. 13 Feb 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Clive.

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