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Chapter 22: Asian Transitions

Page history last edited by John Bunch 15 years, 4 months ago

 

 

 

 

 

Section 1

Working together using this wiki

Think of this wiki as a shared online whiteboard. The entire class can share information using this wiki, making your research accessible to everyone. You will not  have to complete the IDs all by yourself! Play around with this wiki: Notice how you can add comments to a page, see what people have changed, and edit all the text.

 

How to add your information to this wiki...

  1. Click on the Edit tab at the top.
  2. Scroll down to your term and copy and paste your information. (Be sure to add your name after the term)
  3. Use the right toolbar to insert images and files (be sure to keep your images small - we are all sharing this page)

    Use this checklist to check your work: (I use this list to grade your wiki)

    • Add your name next to the term/concept you are responsible for (5 pts)
    • Underline the term/concept - make it bold or heading 2 size (5 pts)
    • Brief summary of term/concept - use bullets or highlight key points (55 pts)
    • Picture/map - must include caption (keep image small in size) (image = 15 pts; caption =10 pts)
    • Please provide a FULL citation for the source(s) used - www.citationmachine.net can help. (5 pts)
    • Post your info in the right location - instead insert your image with caption right under your content. (5 pts)
    You are responsible for ONE term this week.
  1. When you are done, hit Save at the bottom and view your work (make changes (Edit) as necessary).
  2. TIP: only one person can edit this wiki at a time, so I suggest you create your entry in a word program first. Then you can simply copy and paste it right in when the wiki is available for edit.

 

Identifications - Asian Transitions

 

Ming Dynasty- Maggie Dillon

 

The Basics

-population of around 160-200 Million

-Ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644

-Last dynasty in China ruled by Hans

-2 Capitals- Nanjing (1368-1421)  and Bejing (1421-1644)

-Created navy and army of one million

-Restored the Great Wall of China and the Grand Canal

-Established the Forbidden City (Home of the Emperor's Palace and served as the cerimonial and political center of Chinese government.)

-Remnants of the Ming Dynasty ruled southern China until 1662, a dynastic period which is known as the Southern Ming.

 

Quick History of Ming Dynasty

-Esatblished in Nanjing - January 23. 1368

-Fall of Beijing - June 6, 1644

-End of Southern Ming - April 1662

 

 

Rulers

Emperors

 - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor 

          - Tried to establish a self sufficient community that wouldnt have to depend on commercial industry or urban trade.

 - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor

Chancellors

 - 1368–1375 Liu Ji

 - –1568 Yan Song

 - 1568–1573 Tan Lun

 - 1572–1582 Zhang Juzheng

 - 1621–1625 Ye Xianggao

 - 1625–1627 Zhu Guozhen

 

 Territories of Ming China

 

 

Francis Xavier and Matteo Ricci - Lewis Dalrymple

 

 

Francis Xavier

  • Born to an aristocratic family of Navarre on April 7, 1506
  • Name after his mother, the sole heiress of two noble Navarrese families
  • Father died when he was 9, and he went to Venice, where he was ordained into priesthood on June 24, 1537
  • Became a Jesuit priest in the East Indies, where he was based in Goa for 3 years
    • Got frustrated with the Goa nobles, and requested an Inquisition to be sent here
  • Went to India, where, although he was the first Jesuit there, he made critical mistakes
    • Lack of respect for the Hindu religion
    • Instead of gradual conversion, he wanted to do it quickly
    • Tried to convert the poor rather than the nobles
  • Went to Japan to convert the Japanese to Christianity, along with a disgraced Samurai whom he used as a translator
  • Was the first Jesuit in Japan
    • Japanese was a language barrier, and as such Xavier and other Jesuits used pictures to teach.
    • Japanese people were not easily converted, as they could not see how a good God had created sin and evil
    • Could bear the thought of their ancestors in an eternal hell with no way to free them
  • On his way back to Goa, he heard about Portuguese men being held prisoner in China and asking for an ambassador to speak to the Chinese Emperor
  • Died on an island 14 km South of mainland China due to forgetting his papers saying he was an ambassador
    • The only ships that would take him to the mainland were charging huge sums of money

"Francis Xavier." Wikipedia. 2009. 27 Jan 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Xavier>.

Astrain, Antonio. "St. Francis Xavier." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 27 Jan. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06233b.htm>.

 

Francis Xavier

 

Matteo Ricci

 

  • Born in 1552 in Macerata, then one of the Papal States
  • In 1582, Ricci started learning Chinese language and customs in Macau, a Portuguese colony
    • Became a rare Western scholar who had mastered Chinese classical script
  • Moved to Zhaoqing at request of the governor how had learned of Ricci’s skill as a mathematician/cartographer
    • Stayed here between 1583 and 1589
  • In 1584, Ricci completed the first Western style map in Chinese.
    • Left Zhaoqing in 1589 after being expelled by the new viceroy
  • He was thought to have compiled the first Portuguese-Chinese dictionary along with Michele Ruggieri between 1583 and 1589
  • In 1601, he was allowed to present himself at the court of Wanli, the Emperor of China after presenting him with a chiming clock
    • Became the first Westerner to enter the forbidden city
    • Given free access to the Forbidden City, along with a generous stipend and the title of the Superior-General of all of the Jesuits in China.
    • First Westerner to learn about the Kaifang Jews, and was offered the Chief Rabbi position, but refused
  • Died in Beijing on May 11th 1610
    • As per custom, he was buried in Macao, however the Jesuits asked that he be buried in Beijing in light of his contributions
    • Emperor Wanli agreed to this, and designated a Buddhist temple for the cause.

"Matteo Ricci." Wikipedia. 2009. 27 Jan 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matteo_ricci>

Brucker, Joseph. "Matteo Ricci." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 27 Jan. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13034a.htm>.

Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements published in 1607.

 

 

 

Qing Dynasty

Tea and Chinese trade in Europe - John Caudle

 

  • The Chinese are credited with the beginnings of Tea Drinking
  • Tea was traded greatly by the East India Trading Company, which was Dutch
  • Tea became popular in the Americas and Europe in the 1600s
  • Trade with China was started by the first Portuguese explorations
  • China was at the Eastern Pole of the Asian Sea Trading Network
  • Competition among European countries within Asian Trade
  • Like the Arabs China had good ships and compasses for travel
  • They traded paper, porcelain, and silk with the Europeans
  • Silver was a commodity exchanged among the two
  • Some Europeans went in search of Christian converts, not commodities
  • Some areas led armed resistance to the traders and missionaries
  • Sea and land trade
  • European colonization and settlement of theses areas as a result of tradeThis image shows a chinese village based on tea farming during the 16th and 17th centuries.

 

 

Gilchrist, Andy. "The History of Tea." Ask Andy. 2008. 25 Jan 2009 <http://askandyaboutclothes.com/Lifestyle/History%20of%20Tea.htm>.

 

 

 

Kangxi- Colt Burgin

 
  • Emperor Kangxi was the 4th emperor of the Qing Dynasty
  • He was the third son of Emperor Shunzhi
  • Born May 4th, 1654
  • Died 1722, his 61st year as emperor
  • Came in power at the age of 7 in 1661 and ruled for 61 years, the longest of any emperor
  • He was very educated
  • His reign brought wealth, prosperity, and peace to society
  • Got rid of his supervisors at 13 and personally managed his committee and administration
  • 1670- issued Sacred Edict
    • 16 moral rules based on Confucian teachings
    • Rules instructed people to respect their parents, and ancestors, be generous, to work hard, to be frugal, and to pay taxes
    • Using these, Kangxi encouraged his people to behave

 

  • Kangxi recruited 50 writers to write a history of the Ming Dynasty and also had an encyclopedia of 5000 volumes made 

"Kangxi." chinaculture.org. 27 Jan 2009 <http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_22914.htm>.

"Qing Dynasty." encarta.msn.com. 27 Jan 2009 <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557160/Qing_Dynasty.html#p19>.

 

Portrait of Emperor Kangxi

 

 

 

Ashikaga Shogunate- Cody Bunch

1336- 1573

Ashikaga Shogunate was a feudal military dictatorship ruled by the shoguns of the Ashikaga family. This period is also known as the Muromachi period and gets its name from the Muromachi street of Kyotowhere the third shogun Yoshimitsu established his residence. This residence is nicknamed "Hana no Gosho" or "Flower Palace" (constructed in 1379) because of the abundance of flowers in its landscaping.

 

Marker for Site of Muromachi Bakufu, Kyoto

Onin War, the Era of Independent lords, Japanese disunity: Josh Broach 

  

Civil war between 1467 and 1477

 

Started with dispute between Hosokawa Katsumoto and Yamana Sōzen and initial battle within the capital where Yamana and his allies struck first and were hence named the rebel because they initiated conflict

 

War developed between Ashikaga and several regional daimyo

 

War resulted in the fall of the Ashikaga shogunate which as seen above held a long period of rule prior to the Onin War

 

The end of this war did not solve the issue of power but rather sparked civil strife in Japan where a power struggle arose among the daimyo (Japanese disunity)

 

The period following the Onin war was known as the Era of Independent lords where daimyo fought daimyo and it was much like anarchy even though a shogun and emperor remained in “power”

 

Hosokawa family took over and used the old Ashikaga as their puppets

 

The Ouchi family competed with the Hosokawa as the other most power family of the era

 

However both the Ouchi and Hosokawa were ousted by vassal families

 

The end of the era of Independent Lords saw about only 12 major families remaining for the others had put down

 

In summary, the Era of Independent Lords was characterized by two types of military conflict, the fight for succession of the shogunate and various vassal families taking on their “master” daimyos

  Marks the beginning spot of the Onin War

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onin_war

Reunification of Japan- Will Boggs

  • Between 1560 and 1600 powerful military leaders arose to defeat the warring daimyo in order to unify Japan
  • Thre major leaders followed this time period in succession: they are Oda Nobunaga (1534-82), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), and Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616.
  • As each of their power increased they looked to the imperial court in Kyoto for sanction.
  • Nobunga was killed in a war over the twelve western Honshu provinces. After his death Hideyoshi was rewarded with a joint guardianship of Nobunga's heir who was a minor.
  • After eliminating all of the guardians Hideyoshi had complete dictatorial power in Japan. His goal was to take over China also, but he first attacked Korea, a Chinese state at the time. Eventually he was met strong forces and then they made a treaty/
  • His power was ended by his abrupt death and he was then succeeded by Ieyasu.

This pictue illustrates a typical battle that happened during the period of Reunification of Japan. 

 

Reunification of Japan." 20 Jan 2009 http://www.country-studies.com/japan/reunification.html

 

 

Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi - Dalyn Bellingham

  • Oba Nobunaga (1534-1582) was a major daimyo (powerful territorial lord who ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holding) during the Sengoku Period of Japanese history
  • Nobunaga lived a life of continuous military conquest and had conquered one-third of Japanese daimyo by the time of his death
  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) was a loyal supporter of Oba Nobunaga and became his successor after Oba’s death in 1582
  • Toyotomi’s rule brought an end to the Sengoku period and began the Momoyama period
  • Toyotomi became the first man to conquer all of Japan and is regarded as Japan’s first of three great unifiers.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi established the restriction that only Samurai could bear arms

"Oda Nobunaga." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 17 Jan 2009, 02:43 UTC. 22 Jan 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oda_Nobunaga&oldid=264595462>.

"Toyotomi Hideyoshi." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 22 Jan 2009, 14:01 UTC. 22 Jan 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Toyotomi_Hideyoshi&oldid=265700938>.

Tokugawa Ieyasu- Adam Barr

  • Born in Okazaki Castle in Mikawa on January 31, 1543 as Matsudaira Takechiyo
  • His mother and father were step-brother and step-sister, and had him in their mid-teens
  • He married his first wife at the about the age of 16
  • Changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1567 in order to claim descent from the Minamoto clan
  • In 1603, at the age of 60, Ieyasu received the title of shogun from the emperor of Japan
  • Ieyasu’s shogunate  remained in control of Japan for the next 250 years
  • Ieyasu died at age 73 in 1616, possibly of syphilis
  • He bit his nails when nervous

 

Tokugawa Ieyasu

 

"Tokugawa Ieyasu." Wikipedia. 09 Jan 2009. Wikipedia. 20 Jan 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokugawa_Ieyasu>.

 

The Tokugawa Shogunate and the Great Palace

 

 

 

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